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中南大学学报(自然科学版)

Journal of Central South University

第49卷    第10期    总第290期    2018年10月

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文章编号:1672-7207(2018)10-2625-11
材料应变率效应对2类吸能结构碰撞性能的影响
冯悦,肖守讷,朱涛,杨冰,杨皓杰

(西南交通大学 牵引动力国家重点实验室,四川 成都,610031)

摘 要: 轨道车辆吸能结构变形时伴随着明显的应变率效应,为了研究材料应变率效应对碰撞仿真结果的影响,以应变率敏感材料Q235为研究对象,首先,通过实验数据对比和理论解对比2种方法,证明考虑应变率效应的Q235材料模型的可靠性;然后,研究材料应变率效应对挤压式和压溃式圆锥管吸能结构碰撞载荷与吸能、变形模式等耐撞性能的影响;在此基础上,提出2种受材料应变率效应的影响不明显、变形有序可控的诱导式吸能结构。研究结果表明:对于不同结构,材料应变率效应影响因子不同,考虑材料应变率强化效应的挤压式吸能结构碰撞力放大因子比压溃式圆锥管结构的大;对于不同结构,材料应变率效应影响因子随速度变化的幅度不同,挤压式吸能结构的应变率效应放大因子随速度变化幅度比压溃式的小;材料应变率效应对第二类吸能结构的变形模式影响显著,应变率强化效应减少了应变率较大的变形,增加或促进了应变率较小的变形;诱导式吸能结构的变形模式受材料应变率效应的影响不明显,变形有序可控,在工程设计中可考虑采用诱导结构,以减少材料应变率效应对结构变形模式的影响。

 

关键字: 轨道车辆;碰撞性能;吸能结构;应变率效应

Influence of material strain rate effect on crashworthiness of two kinds of energy-absorbing structure
FENG Yue, XIAO Shoune, ZHU Tao, YANG Bing, YANG Haojie

State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China

Abstract:The deformation of energy-absorbing structure on rail vehicles is accompanied by obvious strain rate effect. In order to study the influence of material strain rate effect on collision simulation results, the material Q235 which has obvious strain rate effect was studied. Firstly, the reliability of Q235 material model considering strain rate effect was proved by comparison with experimental results and theoretical results. Then the influence of material strain rate effect on the impact load and energy absorption, deformation modes of squeezed and crushed cone energy-absorbing structures were studied. On the basis of this, two kinds of induced energy-absorbing structures were proposed, which were almost not affected by material strain rate effect and the deformation was orderly and controllable. The results show that the influence factor of material strain rate effect varies with different structures. And the influence factor of squeezed structure is larger than crushed cone energy-absorbing structure considering the material strain rate enhancement effect. For different structures, the influence factor of material strain rate effect changes with the change of velocity. The influence factor of the squeezed structure does not increase as greatly as crushed cone energy-absorbing structure when velocity increases. The material strain rate effect has significant influence on the deformation mode of the second type of energy-absorbing structure, and the strain rate enhancement effect reduces the deformation with high strain rate and increases the deformation with low strain rate. The deformation mode of induced energy-absorbing structure is almost not affected by material strain rate effect, and the deformation is orderly and controllable. It can be considered in the engineering design to reduce the influence of material strain rate on the deformation mode.

 

Key words: rail vehicles; crash worthiness; energy-absorbing structure; strain rate effect

中南大学学报(自然科学版)
  ISSN 1672-7207
CN 43-1426/N
ZDXZAC
中南大学学报(英文版)
  ISSN 2095-2899
CN 43-1516/TB
JCSTFT
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